Acknowledgements: This paper has benefited greatly from discussions with Dr. D.C.W. Nkhuwa at the University of Zambia, Dr. Richard Taylor at the University College of London, Prof. Richard Carter at WaterAid, London, and Dr. Stephen Foster from the World Bank’s GW-MATE program. We are also indebted to experts invited to a round-table discussion based on a draft of this report: Maggie Black (author), Dr. Richard Boak (Schlumberger Water
Services), Dr. William Burgess (UCL), Prof. Sandy Cairncross (LSHTM), Prof. Richard Carter (WaterAid), Dr. Sue Cavill (DFID), Dr. John Chilton (IAH), Dr. Guy Howard (DFID), Dr. Dan Lapworth (BGS) and Dr. Josephine Tucker (ODI). Experts speaking at an event on groundwater, climate change and poverty reduction in Africa, arranged by the Overseas Development
Institute, London, in March 2010 also contributed insights which have informed this paper.
The authors would also like to thank the following people who provided useful information on the Zambian case study: Ngosa Howard Mpamba (MEWD), Daniel C.W. Nkhuwa (UNZA), Yuki Shibuya (JICA), Jack Nkhoma (MEWD), Malama Munkonge (UNICEF), Rees Mwasambili (ADB), Cathryn Mwanamwambwa (Care Zambia), Burton Mukomba (Care Zambia), Samuel Gonga (DTF), Michael Mutale (Water Resources specialist), Ian Nzali Banda (KWSC), Kennedy Mayumbelo (LWSC), Constance Mulenga (LCC), Ireen Kabuba (LCC), Rueben Lifuka (Dialogue Africa), Peter Lungu (IDE), Nelson Ncube (PPHPZ), Melanie Chirwa (PPHPZ), Memory Malimo (PPHPZ), Evaristo Kasonde (Seeds of Hope), Veronica Katulushi (George Compound tap-leader), members of the Ng’ombe Housing Savings Group
and members of the Nkwazi Savings Group.
The authors would also like to thank the following people who provided useful information on the Bangalore case study: P.B. Ramamurthy (BWSSB), T. Venkatraju (BWSSB), Vishwanath Srikantaiah (Arghyam Foundation) and Derick Anil.
Special thanks also go to Ngianga Kandala, Prof. Nyovani Madise of the University of Southampton who helped with the analysis of the DHS data, and to Prof. Mark Montgomery who reviewed the sections where this analysis is presented.
A number of organisations run by and working with slum dwellers have been crucial to this research, especially during field trips. In Bangalore, these include Jansayjog, Bangalore Slum Dwellers’ Federation, AVAS, Akshara Foundation and APSA. In Lusaka, the People’s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia offered invaluable help.
Jenny T. Grönwall would like to express her sincere thanks to the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the organisation she was affiliated to at the time of the study.
The authors would also like to thank Dr Abel Mejia who reviewed this paper.
Disclaimer: The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here do not represent the views of any organisations that have provided institutional, organisational or financial support for the preparation of this paper.
Acronyms and Abbreviations .... vi
Definitions of Terms .... vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .... x
1 Groundwater dependence, health and equity implications ....1
1.1 Introduction .... 1
1.2 Trends in urban groundwater use and dependence .... 4
1.3 Aspects of poverty and health .... 6
1.4 Aspects of equity .... 7
1.5 Managing a hidden resource: taking measures to improve sustainable access .... 8
1.5.1 Groundwater dependence in Bangalore and Lusaka .... 9
1.5.2 Policy issues and options .... 10
2 Trends, statistics and household data on groundwater access .... 13
2.1 Survey evidence of urban households’ dependence on nearby wells .... 14
2.2 The DHS and the MDGs .... 22
3 What characterises groundwater in urban areas? .... 26
3.1 Hydrogeologic conditions for groundwater development .... 27
3.2 Safe yield, sustainability and uncertainties .... 28
3.3 Groundwater recharge in urban areas .... 31
3.4 Groundwater and climate change .... 32
4 Case studies: Bangalore (India) and Lusaka (Zambia) .... 33
4.1 Bangalore .... 34
4.1.1 City profile .... 35
4.1.2 Groundwater conditions .... 36
4.1.3 Bangalore’s water supply situation .... 40
4.1.4 Strategies for water access in Bangalore ..... 44
4.2 Lusaka .... 47
4.2.1 City profile .... 48
4.2.2 Groundwater conditions .... 49
4.2.3 Lusaka’s water supply situation .... 51
4.2.4 Strategies for water access in Lusaka .... 56
5 Conclusions .... 59
5.1 Bangalore and Lusaka – what can we learn? .... 60
5.1.1 The role of groundwater for households .... 60
5.1.2 The role of groundwater for water providers .... 61
5.1.3 Issues of quality, potability and health .... 63
5.1.4 Should the use of groundwater be further encouraged? .... 63
5.2 The future for the urban poor’s groundwater use .... 65
5.2.1 Self-supply: meeting one’s own need .... 66
5.2.2 Interventions: regulations and control for sustainability and equity .... 69
REFERENCES .... 72
APPENDIX A .... 79
RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IIED’S HUMAN SETTLEMENTS GROUP .... 84